The Rough Collie by the British type is a more elegant to 61 cm high and up to 25 kg heavier companion dog and has a slightly-mixed upper and lower coat. The dog has thick coat with silky soft undercoat. A Scottish Shepherd demonstrably exists since the 13th century and was used primarily as a herding dog in the Scottish moors. It takes its name from the Collie sheep. These sheep with black heads and legs are called Colley; their herding dogs were Colley Dogs, a name which later turned into Collie. Queen Victoria learned the Collie by their stays in the Scottish Balmoral know and love and was henceforth a patron of this breed, they willingly and generously gave away also to diplomats and royal houses in Europe. Became famous for her black collie Gypsy who was buried in 1868 in the Park of Windsor Castle. This tradition also led Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother called, continued. Made in 1840 in England, the foundation of the “Collie Club” by stately lovers who turn in 1858 by the continued recognition as a race. The Collie came in 1861 for the first time at the Birmingham Dog Show in appearance.
British Dog Breed. The “Airedale Terrier” is a robust, very muscular dog with a hard, dense and wiry hair and much undercoat. „Waterside-“ or „Working-Terrier“. The farmers, hunters, miners and factory workers used these dogs for hunting, especially the popular Otter hunting, herding, guard services and even for dog fighting. Despite his rough and shaggy appearance in the early years of breeding, he served the end of the 19th century, the ladies in London as a preferred companion dog.
“That island of England breeds very valiant creatures” King Henry V.
STAUNCHEST of the staunch, the BULL TERRIER will fight to the death in the service of one he loves. Although of high courage he is not necessarily a seeker after quarrels with others of his kind, but when he has entered upon one he follows the advice of Polonius, so bearing himself that the opposed may beware of him. There is a story related of a Dalmatian whose duty it was to follow his master’s carriage to the station every morning. At a certain house on the road was a surly retriever, who constantly made the unhappy creature lament that he was ever born a dog, what time his owner cursed his pusillanimity. Once day this gentleman confided his trouble to a friend who kept a bull terrier. “We will soon settle the retriever,” was the reply, and next morning the terrier, with artistic black spots dotted about his body, made the journey instead of the Dalmatian, and gave the bully such a bad quarter of an hour that for ever after he held his peace.
Fifty or more years ago, one regrets to record, the bull terrier was a very disreputable fellow, his avocation being dog fighting, badger baiting, and ratting. In the middle of last century no undergraduate of porting proclivities had completed his education until he could appraise the merits of one of these dogs. We all remember how Charles Stewart Calverley traced the metamorphosis of the Freshman, whose education grew by degrees until he: Learned to work the wary dog-cart; Artfully through King’s Parade; Dress, and steer a boat, and sport with Amaryllis in the shade: Struck, at Brown’s, the dashing hazard; Or (more curious sport than that) Dropped, at Callaby’s, the terrier Down upon the prisoned rat.
Gone are these days, “good old times,” they were called, when by some strange perversion baiting an imprisoned animal was miscalled sport. We are no less sporting to-day, but our tastes have assumed a healthier form, and it has become a wholesome law that the object of our pursuit shall have a decent chance of making good his escape.
The prejudices excited by the earlier associations of the bull terrier were not easily overcome, and it was many years before he received the entrance to decent society. Doubtless dog shows had much to do with his rehabilitation, people coming at last to recognize his sterling qualities, although the practice of cropping the ears, continued until 1895, kept him from winning his proper place in popular regard. However desirable this form of mutilation may have been in the fighting era, the suffering involved was afterwards wholly unnecessary, and the decision of the Kennel Club to put an end to it was one of the wisest things this body has ever done. The belief of the pessimists, that the bull terrier had received his death blow has not been justified by results. At first, it is true, the natural ear was an eyesore, much detracting from the smartness of appearance, but the new generation, having become accustomed to the present style, sees little of which to complain, and contents itself with the dog as he is.
Not only are classes at shows well filled, but the ordinary man, who never dreams of exhibiting, is coming to see that if he would have an ideal guard and faithful companion, not too large for the house, and yet with sufficient weight and pluck to tackle a burglar, he could not well do better than buy a bull terrier, The old dogs were of all sorts, sizes, color and types, little uniformity being observable, but now we have a shapely animal, with an air of breeding and class. Note the power and symmetry of his body, a combination of agility and gracefulness. He is as clean built as a bit of sculpture, The small eye may be a stumbling block at first, but even this, on examination, becomes a fitting complement to the shape of the head, and we would not have it otherwise.
One undoubted drawback is the tendency to deafness inherited by so many. Why the pure white dog should be subject to this defect would need an explanation of too scientific a nature to make it admissible within the cope of this chapter. It may be noted, however, as a matter of interest, that the presence of one or two dark marks on the skin, not apparent in the coat, is sufficient to maintain the hearing unimpaired. The correlation between the total absence of pigment and the non-existence of the sense of hearing has frequently stimulated the investigation of scientists. The same phenonomen is manifested in the feline race, white cats with blue eyes almost invariably being deaf. The curious thing is that if one of the eyes is of a different color the hearing is not defective. Darwin’s omission to speak of the bull terrier when writing upon this topic is not surprising, considering that the all-white dogs were not common in his time. They were a later product.
Seated by my side,
At my feet,
So he breathed but air
I breached, Satisfied!
AS the heavy train steamed into Willesden sounds of barking directed me to the compartment in which the pup was traveling. This, the first excursion from the kennels in which she had passed the three and a half months of her young life, was an event co be signalized by signs of disapproval. Strange voices, stranger modes of locomotion, were disturbing and disconcerting, and my friendly accents but quieted her momentarily. The protest was renewed as we proceeded by another train to the home that was soon to be friendly and familiar. As for us we were anxious to see the small creature with such expressive vocal organs. When the hamper was opened the most delightful little Teddy Bear imaginable bounded out and proceeded to introduce herself. A mass of white fluffy down, with here and there a splash of lemon, eloquent dark eyes, and plump as the proverbial partridge.
That was PANDORE as we first knew her. Time only served to strengthen and crystallize the early impressions. With manners as charming and irreproachable as her looks, before many days had passed he had won all hearts, becoming an important member of the household. That wise head of hers held brains which led her instinctively to adapt herself to her surroundings, and fall in with the habits and wishes of the human gods who formed her little world. Visitors, though tolerated as necessary evils, were regarded with signal disapproval, heavy bark and bared teeth warning that no evil intent must be harboured towards the inmates of the house.
As Pandore grew older the downy coat was shed, profuse long hair taking its place in gradual transition, and she became more and more intelligent, until we agreed that we had never, among our host of canine friends, met one so sensible. None, too, could be more expressive. When on mischief bent she displayed it with a roguishness of demeanour that earned absolution for the misdeed almost before it was perpetrated. Greatly did she delight in a game of “catch as catch can” on the lawn with the children. Entering into the spirit of the fun she would romp round in endless gyrations, bushy tail extended to the full a few inches from hands ready to grasp, but she could calculate to a fraction, twisting and dodging with the art of a football player, until pity impelled her to pretend she could go on no longer. One could fill a book relating Pandore’s escapade, but further recital might weary. Let mention of her adventure with the garden hose suffice as an example of the rest. The curious serpentine length stretched out on the lawn interested her vastly, and when she heard the sissling noise made by the air escaping from the nozzle as the water came on down went her nose to investigate. A sadden jet full in the face caused a precipitate retreat, and now as the hose appears there is much commotion at a diplomatic distance.
These few words convey but inadequately the intelligence and charm of the Pyrenean Mountain dogs which Lady Sybil Grant is doing her best to acclimatize in this country. More delightful companions and trustworthy guardians could not be wished by the most exigent, nor is this surprising. For centuries they have lived in communion with their masters on the Pyrenean slopes, protecting the flocks from bears and wolves, or human depredators. With the practical disappearance of the former animals their vocation to an extent has gone, while the inherited instinct remains. They are no common sheep dogs, used to round up the Rocks. In their native land, the shepherd, following the old Biblical custom, leads his sheep to the green pastures on the mountains with the advent of spring, and there they remain until winter approaches. Time was when severe toll would have been taken of the defence less creatures during the long nights hut for the unceasing watchfulness of the faithful Patous posted at various points.
A French writter recently remarked, while by day the shepherd coule exercise surveillance over the sheep, in the darkness this was impossible, and “il ‘adjoignit donc un gardien de nuit fort et redoutable, dont le aboiements fussent assez puissance pour être entendus de loin et répétés par les échos de la montagne; dont l’odorat fut assez subtil pour suivre la piste des animaux sauvages et dangereux; dont l’intelligence fut assez developpée pour comprendre que, la nuit tombée, il avait seul la garde du troupeau; enfin un compagnon dont l’affection et l’attachement pour les brebis fussent tels qu’il ne consentit jamais à se separer d’elles et qu’il exposit courageusement sa vie pour les protéger et les défendre, c’ est ainsi que se constitua le vrai type des Pyrénéens.” What is the type of the dog thus highly praised? In size he is nearly as tall as a St. Bernard, without being quite so heavily built, and, although his head is less massive, it is still sufficiently large to be in keeping with the body. The expression conveys dignity and serenity as if conscious of power. The long white coat is marked about the head and in one or two other places on the body with brindle or lemon splashes. The whole appearance is that of a large powerful animal, remarkably active for its size, and capable of much endurance.
OF the many different kinds of dogs now established as British, not a few have had their origin in other lands, whence specimens have been imported into this country, in course of time to be so improved by selection that they have come to be commonly accepted as native breeds. Some are protected from the claim that they are indigenous by the fact that their origin is indicated in their names. No one would pretend that the St. Bernard or the Newfoundland, the Spaniel or the Dalmatian, are of native breed. They are alien immigrants whom we have naturalised, as we are naturalising the majestic Great Dane, the decorative Borzoi, the alert Schipperke, and the frowning Chow Chow, which are of such recent introduction that they must still be regarded as half-acclimatised foreigners. But of the antiquity of the Mastiff there can be no doubt. He is the oldest of our British dogs, cultivated in these islands for so many centuries that the only difficulty concerning his history is that of tracing his descent, and discovering the period when he was not familiarly known.
It is possible that the Mastiff owes his origin to some remote ancestor of alien strain. The Assyrian kings possessed a large dog of decided Mastiff type, and used it in the hunting of lions. It is supposed by many students that the breed was introduced into early Britain by the adventurous Phoenician traders who, in the sixth century B.C., voyaged to the Scilly Islands and Cornwall to barter their own commodities in exchange for the useful metals. Knowing the requirements of their barbarian customers, these early merchants from Tyre and Sidon are believed to have brought some of the larger “pugnaces”, which would be readily accepted by the Britons to supplant, or improve, their courageous but undersized fighting dogs.
In Anglo-Saxon times every two villeins were required to maintain one of these dogs for the purpose of reducing the number of wolves and other wild animals. This would indicate that the Mastiff was recognized as a capable hunting dog; but at a later period his hunting instincts were not highly esteemed, and he was not regarded as a peril to preserved game; for in the reign of Henry Ill. the Forest Laws, which prohibited the keeping of all other breeds by unprivileged persons, permitted the Mastiff to come within the precincts of a forest, imposing, however, the condition that every such dog should have the claws of the fore-feet removed close to the skin.
THE ENGLISH MASTIFF
The name Mastiff was probably applied to any massively built dog. It is not easy to trace the true breed amid the various names which it owned. Molossus, Alan, Alaunt, Tie-dog, Bandog (or Band-dog), were among the number. The names Tie-dog and Bandog intimate that the Mastiff was commonly kept for guard, but many were specially trained for baiting bears, imported lions, and bulls. There is constant record of the Mastiff having been kept and carefully bred for many generations in certain old English families. One of the oldest strains of Mastiffs was that kept by Mr. Legh, of Lyme Hall, in Cheshire. They were large, powerful dogs, and longer in muzzle than those which we are now accustomed to see. Another old and valuable strain was kept by the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth. It is to these two strains that the dogs of the present day trace back. Mr. Woolmore’s Crown Prince was one of the most celebrated of Mastiffs. He was a fawn dog with a Dudley nose and light eye, and was pale in muzzle, and whilst full credit must be given to him for having sired many good Mastiffs, he must be held responsible for the faults in many specimens of more recent years. Unfortunately, he was indiscriminately bred from, with the result that in a very short time breeders found it impossible to find a Mastiff unrelated to him.
It is to be deplored that ever since his era there has been a perceptible diminution in the number of good examples of this fine old English breed, and that from being an admired and fashionable dog the Mastiff has so declined in popularity that few are to be seen either at exhibitions or in breeders’ kennels. At the Crystal Palace in I871 there were as many as sixty-three Mastiffs on show, forming a line of benches two hundred yards long, and not a bad one among them; whereas at a dog show held twenty-five years later, where more than twelve hundred dogs ‘were entered, not a single Mastiff was benched.
The difficulty of obtaining dogs of unblemished pedigree and superlative type may partly account for this decline, and another reason of unpopularity may be that the Mastiff requires so much attention to keep him in condition that without it he is apt to become indolent and heavy. Nevertheless, the mischief of breeding too continuously from one strain such as that of Crown Prince has to some extent been eradicated, and we have had many splendid Mastiffs since his time. Special mention should be made of that grand bitch Cambrian Princess, by Beau. She was purchased by Mrs. Willins, who, mating her with Maximilian (a dog of her own breeding by The Emperor), obtained Minting, who shared with Mr. Sidney Turner’s Beaufort the reputation of being unaproached for all round merit in any period.
The following description of a perfect Mastiff, taken from the Old English Mastiff Club’s “Points of a Mastiff”, is admirable as a standard to which future breeders should aim to attain.
Description of Head, ENGLISH MASTIFF
In general outline, giving a square appearance when viewed from any point. Breadth greatly to be desired, and should be in ratio to length of the whole head and face as 2 to 3. General
Description or Body, ENGLISH MASTIFF
Massive, broad, deep, long, powerfully built, on legs wide apart, and squarely set. Muscles sharply defined. Size a great desideratum, if combined with quality. Height and substance important if both points are proportionately combined. Skull-Broad between the ears, forehead flat, but wrinkled when attention is excited. Brows (superciliary ridges) slightly raised. Muscles of the temples and cheeks (temporal and masseter) well developed. Arch across the skull of a rounded, flattened curve, with a depression up the centre of the forehead from the medium line between the eyes, to half way up the sagittal suture.
Face or Muzzle, ENGLISH MASTIFF
Short broad under the eyes, and keeping nearly parallel in width to the end of the nose; truncated, i.e. blunt and cut off square, thus forming a right angle with the upper line of the face, of great depth from the point of the nose to under jaw. Under jaw broad to the end; canine teeth healthy, powerful, and wide
apart; incisors level, or the lower projecting beyond the upper, but never sufficiently so as to become visible when the mouth is closed. Nose broad, with widely spreading nostrils when viewed from the front; flat (not pointed or turned up) in profile. Lips diverging at obtuse angles with the septum, and slightly pendulous so as to show a square profile. Length of muzzle to whole head and face as 1 to 3. Circumference of muzzle (measured midway between the eyes and nose) to that of the head (measured before the ears) as 3 to 5.
Ears, ENGLISH MASTIFF
Small,thin to the touch, wide apart, set on at the highest points of the sides of the skull, so as to continue the outline across the summit, and lying
flat and close to the cheeks when in repose. Eyes-Small, wide apart, divided by at least the space of two eyes. The stop between the eyes well marked, but not too abrupt. Color hazel-brown, the darker the better, showing no haw.
Neck, Chest and Ribs
Neck slightly arched, moderately long, very muscular, and measuring in circumference about one or two inches less than the skull before the ears. Chest-,Wide, deep, and well let down between the fore-legs. Ribs arched and well-rounded. False ribs deep and well set back to the hips. Girth should be one third more than the height at the shoulder. Shoulder and Arm-Slightly sloping, heavy and muscular.
Fore-legs and Feet, ENGLISH MASTIFF
Legs straight, strong, and set wide apart; bones very large. Elbows square. Pasterns upright. Feet large and round. Toes well arched up. Nails black.
Back, Loins and Flanks, ENGLISH MASTIFF
Back and loins wide and muscular; flat and very wide in a bitch, slightly arched in a dog. Great depth of flanks.
Hind-legs and Feet, ENGLISH MASTIFF
Hind quarters broad, wide, and muscular, with well developed second thighs, hocks bent, wide apart, and quite squarely set when standing or walking. Feet round. Tail-Put on high up, and reaching to the hocks, or a little below them, wide at its root and tapering to the end, hanging straight in repose, but forming a curve, with the end pointing upwards, but not over the back, when the dog is excited.
Coat Color, ENGLISH MASTIFF
Coat short and close lying, but not too fine over the shoulders, neck, and back. Color, apricot or silver fawn, or dark fawn-brindle. In any case, muzzle, ears, and nose should be black, with black round the orbits, and extending upwards between them.
Size, ENGLISH MASTIFF
is a quality very desirable in this breed. The height of many dogs of olden days was from thirty-two to thirty-three inches. The height should be obtained rather from great depth of body than length of leg. A leggy Mastiff is very undesirable. Thirty inches may be taken as a fair average height for dogs, and bitches somewhat less. Many of Mr. Lukey’s stood 32 inches and over; Mr. Green’s Monarch was over 33 inches, The Shah 32 inches, and Cardinal 32 inches.
The method of rearing a Mastiff has much to do with its ultimate size, but it is perhaps needless to say that the selection of the breeding stock has still more to do with this. It is therefore essential to select a dog and bitch of a large strain to obtain large Mastiffs. It is not so necessary that the dogs themselves should be so large as that they come from a large strain. The weight of a full-grown dog should be anything over I60 lb. Many have turned over the scale at 180 lb. The Shah, for instance, was r82 lb. in weight, Scawfell over 200 lb.
One of the great difficulties that breeders of Mastiffs and all other large dogs have to contend against is in rearing the puppies; so many bitches being clumsy and apt to kill the whelps by lying on them. It is, therefore, always better to be provided with one or more foster bitches. At about six weeks old a fairly good opinion may be formed as to what the puppies will ultimately turn out in certain respects, for, although they may change materially during growth, the good or bad qualities which are manifest at that early age will, in all probability, be apparent when the puppy has reached maturity.
It is, therefore, frequently easier to select the best puppy in the nest than to do so when they are from six to nine or ten months old.
should be allowed all the liberty possible, and never be tied up: they should be taken out for steady, gentle exercise, and not permitted to get too fat or they become too heavy, with detrimental results to their legs. Many Mastiff puppies are very shy and nervous, but they will grow out of this if kindly handled, and eventually become the best guard and protector it is possible to have.
The temper of a Mastiff should be taken into consideration by the breeder. They are, as a rule, possessed of the best of tempers. A savage dog with such power as the Mastiff possesses is indeed a dangerous creature, and, therefore, some inquiries as to the temper of a stud dog should be made before deciding to use him. In these dogs, as in all others, it is a question of how they are treated by the person having charge of them.
The feeding of puppies is an important matter, and should be carefully seen to by anyone wishing to rear them successfully. If goat’s milk is procurable it is preferable to cow’s milk. The price asked for it is sometimes prohibitory, but this difficulty may be surmounted in many cases by keeping a goat or two on the premises. Many breeders have obtained a goat with the sole object of rearing a litter of puppies on her milk, and have eventually discarded cow’s milk altogether, using goat’s milk for household purposes instead. As soon as the puppies will lap they should be induced to take arrowroot prepared with milk. Oatmeal and maize meal, about one quarter of the latter to three quarters of the former, make a good food for puppies. Dog biscuits and the various hound meals, soaked in good broth, may be used with advantage, but no dogs, either large or small, can be kept in condition for any length of time without a fair proportion of meat of some kind. Sheep’s paunches, cleaned and well boiled, mixed with sweet stale bread, previously soaked in cold water, make an excellent food and can hardly be excelled as a staple diet. In feeding on horseflesh care should be taken to ascertain that the horse \vas not diseased, especially if any is given uncooked.
Worms are a constant source of trouble from the earliest days of puppy-hood, and no puppy suffering from them will thrive; every effort, therefore, should be made to get rid of them.
With proper feeding, grooming, exercise, and cleanliness, any large dog can be kept in good condition without resort to medicine, the use of which should be strictly prohibited unless there is real need for it. Mastiffs kept under such conditions are far more likely to prove successful stud dogs and brood bitches than those to which deleterious drugs are constantly being given.
The English Foxhound is a large and 35 cm to 64-pound pack dog. This powerful and persistent dog has thick, straight hair in the colors: white, black and white or white and orange, with reddish brown markings.
On the ‘straightest legs and the roundest of feet
With ribs like a frigate his timbers to meet,
With a fashion and fling and a form so complete,
That to see him dance over the flags is a treat.
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